Phrases and clauses are key parts of building sentences. Both are groups of words that make up sentences but they are formed in different ways and have different functions.
A clause is a group of words that:
Clauses that express a complete thought are independent clauses. Dependent clauses do not express a complete thought, but they still contain a subject and verb.
In these examples of clauses, the subject is in red and the verb green:
So as you can see, all the clauses have subjects and verbs, and the independent clauses also express a complete thought, meaning that they make sense alone. This is not the case with phrases.
A phrase is a group of words that:
In these phrases, the underlined part is the key to identifying the type of phrase, as it is the head word. The other words will be modifying it or complementing it in some way:
Of course a phrase could consist of more than one phrase once you break it down and add or remove certain parts of it:
Now you understand the difference between phrases and clauses, you can see how they are used within sentences.
Take a look at this sentence, which you can see has a mix of phrases and clauses:
John had to work extremely hard but he passed his exams